pakistan meteorological department

Pakistan Meteorological Department

Pakistan Meteorological Department (PMD) aka Pakistan Met provides Meteorological services in Pakistan. Pakistan Met also works in the fields of Seismology and Hydrology. The department provides weather forecasts, weather-related warnings and climate change information. Pakistan Met is a member of World Meteorological Organization (WMO). Pakistan lies in Regional Association-II as per division of regions by WMO. DG of PMD is the vice president of Regional Association-II.

 Pakistan Meteorological Department

History of Pakistan Met

Prior to 1947 India had Central Meteorological Organization. After partition of India, Pakistan Meteorological Department was established. The department took over 15 weather observatories from it’s parent department. The department has setup modern systems for weather forecasting and flood prediction. The department established systems for detection of nuclear explosion and earthquakes. Pakistan Met also provides consultancy in the design of buildings and dams from seismic point of view.

Research organizations such as SUPARCO and PAEC during their initial phases were assisted by Pakistan Meteorological Department. When SUPARCO was setup, many scientists and technical staff of Pakistan Met joined it. Pakistan Meteorological Department also provided assistance in SUPARCO’s Geomagnetic Field Monitoring Program. Pakistan Navy Hydrographic Department was inherited from Pakistan Meteorological Department.

Organization Structure

Head of Pakistan Meteorological Department is Director General (DG). DG Pakistan Met is reporting to Secretary Aviation Division. The department has head office in Islamabad and has four divisions. A Chief Meteorologist heads each division. The divisions are:

  1. National Drought Monitoring and Early Warning Center (NDMC), Islamabad.
  2. National Seismic Monitoring and Tsunami Warning Center (NSM & TWC), Karachi.
  3. Flood Forecasting Division (FFD), Lahore.
  4. Research & Development (R & D) Division, Islamabad.

Then there are five Regional Meteorological Centers (RMC) headed by a Director. They are:

  1.  RMC, Karachi.
  2. RMC, Lahore.
  3. RMC, Peshawar.
  4. RMC, Quetta.
  5. RMC, Gilgit Baltistan.

Early Warning Centers

Pakistan Meteorological Department has setup Early Warning Centers in different specialized fields. They are:

  • National Weather Forecasting Center (NWFC), Islamabad.
  • National Drought Monitoring Center (NDMC), Islamabad.
  • Flood Forecasting & Warning Center For Lai Nullah Basin, Islamabad.
  • Marine Meteorology and Tropical Cyclone Early Warning Center (TCWC), Karachi.
  • National Seismic Monitoring & Tsunami Early Warning Center (NTWC), Karachi.
  • Flood Forecasting Division (FFD), Lahore.
  • Coastal Heat Wave (Center).

Flood Forecasting Division

Flood damages are increasing every year. This is due to heavy rains and increase in population which has changed the use of land in flood-prone areas. Both the country and the community have to work towards reducing the damages caused by the floods. At country level, flood forecasting can play an important role in reducing damages caused by floods.

Flood forecasting division is responsible for forecasting of flood in rivers of Pakistan. It also provides information related to water management for dams. Flood forecasting division has good resolution Doppler radars. Doppler radars are at Lahore and Mangla. Then there is a QPM radar at Sialkot. There are 5cm weather surveillance radars at Islamabad, Karachi, Rahim Yar Khan and D.I. Khan. Computer modeling is also used for weather forecasting.

FFD has 45 rainfall stations and 101 rainfall gauging systems throughout the country. There is a QPM radar in Sialkot. It detects clouds and precipitation. It’s range is over 200 km.

Agromet Centers

Being an agricultural country Agromet centers are very significant for Pakistan. There are five Agromet Centers in Pakistan. WMO funded these centers for a project. The project was aimed at studying meteorology with respect to production of crops. The purpose of the project was to boost crop production. There is a central forecasting office in Islamabad named National Agromet Center (NAMC). NAMC provides forecasts for the interests of farmers.

NAMC publishes an Agromet Bulletin every month. The bulletin has useful information for farmers. Its published in English as well as Urdu. Regional Agromet Centers (RAMC) prepare reports on weather at regional level. Crop modeling is performed based on these reports. RAMCs provides reports on crops to NAMC. RAMCs also provide advice to farmers of their respective regions. RAMCs also provide technical training to different agricultural institutes.

National Drought Monitoring Center (NDMC)

Monsoon is a major source of rains in Pakistan. In the absence of monsoon, Pakistan faces drought. Sindh and Balochistan are affected most by the droughts. The last drought occurred between 1999-2002. After that drought National Drought Monitoring Center was established by Pakistan Meteorological Department. The main purpose of NDMC is to issue drought-related advisory well in time. NDMC is located in Islamabad. Besides NDMC there are four Regional Drought Monitoring Centers in the provinces. These drought monitoring centers collect, monitor and analyze data related to drought. Drought monitoring centers are assisted by 50 automatic weather stations (AWS). AWS are installed throughout the country. A fortnightly bulletin related to drought is issued by NDMC and can be read online.

Climate Data Processing Center

WMO financed the establishment of Climate Data Processing Center (CDPC). The CDPC stores, processes and retrieves data related to climate, to different users. CDPC is assisted by two data processing centers in Lahore and Karachi. CDPC maintains a meteorological database as per requirements of WMO. CDPC also develops meteorological products such as maps, graphs and wind roses. Climate Data Processing Center provides sun rise and sun set information. It also provides information about new moon which helps in moon-sighting. CDPC provides information about lunar and solar eclipses and rains in difference seasons.

Geophysical Center

Pakistan Meteorological Department has established a Geophysical center in Quetta. The center has a Seismic Unit which has observatories in Balochistan. The Seismic center collects and analyze seismic data. It also advises construction engineers about the area in which they intend to construct. The center also collects and monitor ozone and radiation data.

There is a Tsunami Warning Center established by Pakistan Meteorological Department. The center provides automated alerts about Tsunami to all concerned well in time.

National Seismic Monitoring Center

National Seismic Monitoring Center monitors seismic activity in Pakistan. NSMC provides earthquake information to the government and the public after every event. NSMC prepares monthly seismic reports. The reports provide earthquake activity in Pakistan and neighboring region. These reports are also archived by Pakistan Meteorological Department.

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